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What is an Oven? And Its Types of Ovens

Finding the right commercial bakery equipment to meet your needs might be challenging. When deciding on the specific pieces of machinery to purchase, it is essential to consider not just what you want to manufacture but also how much you want to make. Whether you’re just starting, expanding an existing operation, or want to upgrade some outdated machinery, it’s essential to invest in high-quality machinery like the best bakery oven or the best industrial mixer to maximize productivity and profits.

What is an Oven?

Ovens are used for making baked goods like bread, brownies, and pastries. Dough or batters are placed in an oven, a sealed chamber or a heated tube.

The energy created by the combustion of oil, natural gas, or electricity is used for baking food.

Energy is transferred and made usable by the items via radiation, conductivity, and circulation.

For the cooking process and dehydration of the commodities, the furnace generates and keeps at just the proper thermal gradient, moisture, and operational temperatures.


The traditional oven design, which often has a stone floor or a dome, has been around for quite some time. The Egyptians were the first known people to employ a purpose-built clay oven. Dry firewood and coal were burned in the lower part, which acted as a furnace. The higher, front-accessible section contained the baking area. The Roman Empire began perfecting ovens some hundred years later, resulting in more efficient and cost-effective baking. Brick wall furnaces were constructed within the bakery, with heat-stable components for the roasting chamber and some other high-temperature-resistant materials to close the oven and keep the heated atmosphere for extended durations. Before electricity, these ovens were powered by burning wood inside the enclosure, discarding the ashes, and then placing the dough or batter inside to bake.

Ranges and ovens of different configurations

A bakery oven may be classed as typical batch gear, utilising overt or covert heat exchange, based on its style of working and heat transfer mechanism.

A stovetop or a direct-fired oven (DFO)

DFOs use combusted fuel inside the baking container to produce heat and items. Radiation from the fire (strip burners placed along each oven belt) and the baking area’s top, bottom, and sidewalls are the primary ways heat is transported inside a direct gas-fired furnace. As the bulk of the energy goes towards heating and preparing the products, direct-fired furnaces are highly efficient.

An oven that uses indirect heat (IFO)

Indirect heat is sent to the cooking area via the exchangers in IFOs. This oven is excellent for baking delicate bakery items like bread since the charred leftovers of the cooking process are contained within the thermal storage structure (e.g., cakes, pastries). This prevents any unwanted pollutants or odours from spreading throughout the products. Modern kitchens seldom use these ovens due to their high price and low heat efficiency.

Oven (electric)

When it comes to the fundamentals of their construction and the mechanisms by which they transmit heat, electric furnaces and DFOs are essentially interchangeable for baking purposes. This type of oven uses electrical resistance values in place of the standard gas burners used in DFOs. Due to its high energy consumption and per-kWh expenditures, electric-fired furnaces have limited use in the baking sector. Also, more incredible study and widespread use in industry are required to address the challenges of scaling up.

Hybrid oven

Hybrid furnaces make use of the complementary effects of all three heat transfer types by combining them. This type of furnace often requires a high level of automation due to the complexity of its construction, control systems, and energy sources, which prevents it from being controlled manually.

Abdullah Jutt
Abdullah Jutt
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